Social justice based on women’s freedom
Although “justice” as a concept is a feminine noun or a feminine concept in many languages, it is a very contradictory issue that needs to be resolved as women have suffered the deepest injustices for thousands of years. There are stories of thousands of women who were burned, tortured, stoned, subjected to all kinds of insults, and imprisoned as prostitutes or lunatics. The number of people whose stories are not known is far greater. Especially if these women are fighting for their rights, the law that is assigned to them is the law that applies to Sakina Jansiz, Leila Kassem, Sherine Elimoli, Rosa Luxemburg and Olympia de Giuges.
Justice is symbolized by a statue of a goddess with ears of wheat, a sword and a scale in her hand, in front of law schools, courts, or courts of justice. However, in decisions made in those courtrooms, women who are asked to prove that they have been raped are subjected to other forms of rape by judges, lawyers, doctors or people who call themselves experts and regret seeking justice. In some countries, women are tried or even killed for providing justice themselves. Just like the execution of Rehan Jabbar in Iran in 2014. The search for women’s rights is answered by reconciliation with the husband who beats, insults, sells or buys her. Attacks on girls are legitimized and encouraged by saying that they provoke men and consenting to rape. Although it is said that the eyes of the goddess from the stone statue were tied fairly, it was as if she was constrained to condone the oppression of women. The justice system is said to be highly developed and there are no social rights, responsibilities or crimes not described in the law. Thousands of lawyers, prosecutors, and judges are trained in law schools annually. But who can say that injustice is not increasing all over the world?
Of course, it’s not just women who are wronged. Oppressed classes, peoples, and creeds also get their share of this injustice. Constitutions, in which every social relationship is described to the smallest detail, and standards for crime and punishment are defined, are the basis of these grievances. Because the definition of man in these laws is specific to the man, and the rights and freedoms are specific to the benefit of men. The only law that has remained unchanged for thousands of years is the position of women in the family. Laws designating men as the head of the house were in effect until recently. Now it is not included in the law in some countries, such as Turkey and across Europe, though its weight and included a change of law in that country is maintained as an application in Middle Eastern countries.
Women’s freedom movements have fought for legal equality for hundreds of years, and for women to have their rights within this legal system. Despite the high prices that were paid
Against this, agreements that are said to be internationally binding and equality claims on paper; We feel more deeply and live that the current legal system is not in a character that provides justice to women and society. Since the meat is salted so that it does not spoil, there is nothing when the salt has spoiled. With the realization that the current legal system itself is problematic, there is a growing sense that the social justice system should be based on the living morals of the community, not the state, and this has become an urgent need.
It is clear that, as a women’s movement, it should play an active role in shaping a system of justice based on morality. Morals have been valid since the first socialization that developed around women as principles that hold society together. However, the first legal rules and laws in history appeared in city-states and in the axis of state protection from society. These laws, which are based on matters such as trade, divorce, and inheritance, protect the state and property against society, not the rights of society or the individual. Developed against the women’s statute, these laws are based on the principle of protecting the rights of men against women, the state against society, and the rich against the poor. On the other hand, the development of moral systems based on the ethic of women’s freedom was also the basis for opposition to the dominant patriarchal system. This guides us to the foundations of a women’s justice system. The justice system based on the social contract for women is in a position that can be practiced today, where these values and historical heritage are expressed in a way that includes current problems.
The eradication of morality, which has been constantly eroding since the beginning of civilization, has been attempted with capitalist modernity. The defense of society against this system that turns man and society into ants and robots can only be achieved through ethics (moral sciences) developed by women. For this reason, our leader defines ethics as one of the basic fields of geology and states the following: “Women play a vital role in the ethics and aesthetics of life in light of freedom, equality and democracy as an essential component of the moral and political community. Ethics and aesthetics are an integral part of the science of women. It is indisputable that women will make great initiatives and improvements in all ethical and aesthetic issues, both in terms of thought and power of execution, because of their grave responsibility in life, and in terms of morals, the responsibility of women is also more comprehensive. In assessing, defining and deciding the good and bad aspects of human education, the importance of life and peace, the evils and horrors of war, and measures of justice and justice, women by their nature act more realistically and responsibly in terms of moral and political society. Of course I’m not talking about the man-doll and the shadow woman. It is about free women, equality and democracy.”
When viewed from a historical point of view, it is seen that the moral principles that provide for socialization were first put forward by women. On the other hand, women are the first victims of moral erosion and the worst victims of today. In the legal systems of nations, it is an undoubted fact that women lead the most segments
unjustly, from the most democratic to the most authoritarian. The “solution together with the Equality and Freedom for Women Act” to the acute crisis experienced by the meeting with the delegations of our leader. Women’s law, freedom’s law is essential to me” and we reminded women of our responsibility in this regard.
The development of a social justice system based on women’s law, which dates back thousands of years as the living morality of society, is a task that must be accomplished early in terms of current and historical problems. We believe that such an effort, which will provide a primary focus in ensuring that social justice is built on a foundation based on women’s freedom, will contribute to this and to our struggle and efforts
justice is a woman
So much has been written about justice that its understanding and application in practice has become a complete mystery. It could be said that there are many different perceptions of justice in the world. Everyone talks about justice, everyone uses this language. In this sense, the concept that the oppressive and colonial regime creates and distorts the most conceptual confusion is the concept of justice. It is a great mistake for laws to recognize justice and to be determined by only the right law. This approach keeps the concept narrow and formal. The initiation of justice always by written history or by its reduction to society alone consumes the meaning and value of the concept. Changing our perception and view of justice is important to achieving the “Revolution of Reason and Conscience.” While redefining justice, we must keep our horizons and potential broad in this regard, and put justice at the heart of life, nature—the universe.
By definition, justice is described as a concept describing equality and equality between righteousness, honesty, and individual and social rights. But this is one side. Leader APO, in his definition of justice, says, “True justice can be achieved through an understanding of equality on the basis of differences.” As understood from this definition, justice refers to a concept that protects differences and ensures equality and harmony. Therefore, in order to understand the concept of justice, we can consider its origin and evaluate it as a fact that goes back to the creation of the universe.
Justice is a phenomenon that includes all living things, including the universe, and has a universal meaning. If we start from the philosophy of “understanding the universe is understanding justice,” when we examine the composition of the universe, it is possible to see that the universe also has a system of justice. As evidenced by the conclusion scientists have drawn from the latest quantum physics, all the functions, diversity, and differences in the universe show that we are dealing with the living nature of the universe today. When we begin to notice the great miracle – the BigBang explosion – generated by the energy gathered at a specific point, we are faced with a wonderful organization. The path of formation and the free movements of millions of living species and their variations, from subatomic parts to stars, planets, soil, water, plants, animals and humans, reveal the existence of a symbiotic relationship in the universe. Moon and sun movement 300,000 km per second. The constant formation of differences such as the speed of light, the presence of hydrogen and helium, and the position of the world’s smallest grain of sand without suppressing or destroying each other, shows that the justice system operates in the universe. If justice refers to the balance of all living things in nature, the harmony and equality of diversity and polychromy, then it is nature – the universe itself that provides and best manages justice.
It seems that the universe and nature did not harm these inner workings and its own equilibrium. Everything works in balance and harmony. Although the manufacturing monster has destroyed the ecosystem of nature and upset the balance, the nature of the universe does not compromise on its own. If there were no particle energy and motions in the universe, this diversity and diversity would not have happened. There is a principle of justice at the roots of every living being in the universe. The most realistic example of this is nature itself. The fact that the flow of the universe continues in this way by reproducing and differentiating from the formation of seasons to algae in the sea, from one cell to millions of cells, not only explains the life of the natural universe, but also shows that it creates a natural system of justice within this flow.
In this sense, we will not approach the concept of justice by force and authority, with a masculine mentality, and it will also be a wrong and wrong approach to looking at it apart from the heritage of historical society. Justice is a legacy that comes from the universe, nature and nature to people and from people to society. Justice is one of the most important characteristics of moral behavior and a valuable social virtue that has a place in the human conscience.
Before the civilization of the state, “justice”, which was the basis of happiness and freedom, meant order around the woman. For this reason, justice has been symbolized by the word feminine or women, deities in many cultures and languages. In Sumerian and Kurdish, the word abi means both principal, justice, and rule. This concept is also used in Zoroastrianism in the sense of law. In this regard, although the dadgeh, which is seen as the place of justice, means the place of women in the Kurdish language, the places of justice, which are currently established as courts, have acquired a rather cold masculine character. The word justice, feminine in many languages, is used as a feminine noun in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic. Dike, which means justice in Greek, and the words for justice used in English, French, and many languages today are also derived from the names of the goddess of justice. Statues of women symbolized by scales and sword in hand in front of court or justice buildings still symbolize the Greek goddess of justice Themis or the Roman goddess of justice Astraea (Dyke) and Justet. These sculptures are often called LadyJustite, “Our Lady of Justice”.
When we examine the historical reality of society, it will be correct to define justice as a basic principle of a social lifestyle designed around women. The leading force that organized and controlled the life order of these first human societies, which we may also call the natural society and later Neolithic society, are the best women. It has been shaped as community, equal, participatory and fair with ethics. The understanding of the power and control of society in this women-centered system has not yet developed. The maternal lineage is the beginning of society. The mother-woman has natural authority in society. And this essence in women is the essence about the development of society and it is integrated with society. Judgment, and the use of “hard” in society is an approach that goes against the essence of women in this sense.
Justice is a phenomenon that has existed since the beginning of the history of societies. In these early stages of social development, you must be well aware that the values that best provide life and social life have developed under the leadership of women and that humanity owes its existence today to these values.
These traits that still exist in a woman, her inclusiveness in society, her work and productivity, her peaceful and engaging essence come from the social justice system of the Mother Goddess. She takes care of the child, she takes care of the soil, plants and animals and becomes her friend, biologically, a woman has similar properties to nature and the universe. Women are associated with life and nature and are sanctified by their society. Intuition, holiness, justice, freedom and peaceful features are from the nature of women. It distributes love on a just and equal level to all living things with which it is connected in nature, always in sympathy with nature, without any discrimination. For this, a woman feels closer to nature and knows very well that she is a part of it, a summary of nature.
Knowing this, women adapt the order of the universe and nature to their own sociality, and create the system of collective life in a just, moral and free way. In the Neolithic social system, everyone lives a free, equal and just way of life, social rules are determined by morals, there is a way of life in which there is no class struggle, and everyone is maintained on an equal footing. In this sense, the foundation of the first social justice was laid by the work of the face of the mother woman, and these societal values—work, creativity, morality, equality, freedom, democracy, courage, beauty, and justice—gradually realized the great social revolution of history—the Neolithic Revolution.) Modern stone.
If asked how we understand that serious social problems are not on the agenda in a life based on women’s justice; The most important evidence of this is the absence of cemeteries, where a large number of people were killed as a result of the war until the emergence of city-states. There are likely to be individual conflicts and problems between people or the way business is done in society. However, since these problems were resolved on the basis of moral principles, they did not cause major conflicts, battles and wars
Goddess of Justice – Justice of the Gods
The life that develops around the woman and her justice the goddess of justice is expressed in myths. They are deities who represent justice in Sumerian, Hittite, Egyptian, Greek and Roman mythology. With the development of the oppressive system of the cunning man against the main woman’s justice, societal order and equality, the need and search for justice has also been strengthened. These deities of justice oversee people’s lives and behavior in order to protect morals in society and not to violate sacred laws. In these mythological accounts we come across the first stories that later entered religions as dilemmas of the deeds of sin and hell.
In a tablet attributed to Ishtar in the Akkadian. “I am the goddess Ishtar, I am called to life, even if you call me death. I call my law, even if you call me illegal what to look for and what to find. You have scattered me all over, and now you gather my parts ‘Like the cries of the goddess who owns the law to the cunning gods.
The fact that Nazism (Nancy), the Sumerian goddess of moral behavior, was the name of the German fascist party responsible for the massacre of millions of people from the socialist left, the democratic group, Jews and Gypsies, including Rosa Luxemburg, indicates the great distortion. Once a year the goddess Nancy, who protected social justice in Sumer, would judge people for their good or bad deeds and punish the bad ones. This belief entered Islam on the fifteenth of Sha’ban in the name of Berat Qandili. The actions that Nancy, the goddess of social justice in humans did not like, are expressed on tablets in the following words:
Who knows orphans and who knows widows,
Who knows the cruelty of men,
She is the mother of orphans.
protect nanny widows,
Who deserves the poor?
She is the queen who finds refuge for the weak.
Wandering the illegal way,
This goes beyond existing traditions and contravenes agreements.
I look for the bad places,
Putting the small instead of the big weight,
Use the short scale instead of the long scale
Whoever eats what does not belong to him and says “eat”
Who did not drink and said I drank
People are evil to the goddess Nanşe.
Despite the development of state, class, and male dominance in Sumerian society, the fact that women dealt with female judges and cases against women also indicates the power of women-based justice. Even today, there are no judges or lawyers involved in cases related to women, nor trials that respect women’s authenticity.
“Sun goddess Arena” attributed to the Hittite sun goddess Arena! You’re great! Among the gods, there is no God so glorified and great as you. You are the goddess of justice! The lines also refer to the goddess of justice. In witchcraft activities, which are known to be most effective in the Hittites, rituals are organized by “old men” around a variety of issues against domestic fights, murder, expulsion of a husband or wife, hitting a friend on the head of a person, and bad words. It is mentioned that the rituals organized by the old woman in order to reconcile family members are aimed at saving these bad and cursed words from them irreversibly in order to save them from the negative effects of the “bad, damned and bitter” words that she says to each other during the fight and to prevent them from fighting again. In this ritual the witch says the following;
“If father and son, husband and wife, or brother and sister quarrel, I will reconcile them together.”
Documents have been found relating to cases in which Puduhepa, a Hittite queen of free origin, was a court judge. In fact, Puduhepa is the queen who carried out the “Operation Clean Hands” that entered the pages of history against corruption and theft in the Hittite palaces.
Before Judaism the name Astarte in Canaanite communities was Astarte. Astarte and with him Anat, the Phoenician goddess of fertility, was known as the goddess of justice.
Maata, the goddess of justice and honesty in Egypt; She is the daughter of Ra and the wife of Thoth. Maata is a tall woman with ostrich feathers in her hair. This feather represents pure goodness, truth and justice. It is mentioned in the Book of the Dead that the hall in which the gods question a person after death is also called Maat. In this hall, the heart of the deceased is placed on one tray of the scale, and on the other pan there is a feather or an eye, which are two symbols of the Ma’at. The Maat feather balances the heart of the deceased to decide whether the deceased lives a pure and honest life. If the heart remained in equilibrium with the Feather, it would qualify for the Immortal Duat, known as the Dead Underworld. Because it means that a heart as light as a feather does not carry the burden of sin and Satan. Souls heavy because of their sins are eaten by Amit, the beast who feeds the hearts of the dead.
With the Greek goddess Demeter and Isis in Egypt, who were a continuation of the cult of Inanna, she was called to be the distributor and legislator of virtuous wisdom, advice, and justice.
In Greek mythology, many stories and deities responsible for maintaining a just order are mentioned. One of them is Themis, daughter of Uranus and Gaia and described as a female giant. He is the goddess of law, justice, customs and traditions. The name Themis is derived from the root meaning pose, place, sit. Themis is the law and the rule and the law itself. These are immutable, universal and immortal natural laws in the world of the gods and in the world of men. It is a divine law, the corresponding human law of which is nomos. Today, they still represent laws that conflict with the “honour” that men protect when killing women. So while Nomos is the rules of men, Themis is the guardian of the divine laws of the goddess culture for thousands of years. It is said that Themis, who lived on Olympus, presided over the meetings of the gods and maintained order on Olympus. Themis married Zeus. He gave birth to Horus and Moira. Horus, goddess of times and seasons, three sisters (Eunomiya, Dickey, Eren). Eunomia, meaning discipline, Dike, meaning righteousness and justice, and Eirene, goddess of peace. Moira Goddess of Destiny. The three sisters who give people their share of a happy and unhappy life are Clotho, Lachisels, and Atropos. Dike is known as Astrea in some places and symbolizes truth and justice.
Astrea tries to make sure that people do not deviate from accuracy in their words and actions. It is said that this goddess was satisfied with the advice and was unable to act. In a society where the power of the Mother Goddess is gradually weakening and patriarchy is institutionalized, this does not surprise us much. Astria, who inspired virtue and justice, lived among the people when they lived happily. And when immorality and evil abounded, he ascended to heaven and settled among the stars. He is known as the goddess who judges people among the stars after their death.
Nemesis, another goddess, is the goddess of morality who protects justice in the world and separates right from wrong. In humans, it appears as an entity that punishes overconfidence in itself and its luck. Praksidike is the goddess of justice and another goddess who encourages those who are caught in anger to calm down. It is rumored that he also had two daughters named Homona meaning unity and Arete, meaning virtue.
In Rome, the name of the goddess of justice is Iustitia (Jussetia). It is similar to the dam in Greek mythology. While Iustitia was among the people of the Golden Age, the people who committed more and more crimes caused them not to hold on to the land. He ascended to heaven and became a virgin among the verses.
Thinking about attributing both nature and social laws to deities in society points to a period when lineage, inheritance, and the right to ascend to the throne were mathematically determined. With regard to the institution of marriage, it is seen that a woman has the right to choose and to have a large number of husbands. Later, these laws became patriarchal and patriarchal by dissolving society around women. Even in the period when patriarchy began to be institutionalized, traces of this can be found in abundance. Even when male deities rule and God kings rule, we find female judges to be present. In one article, Starr says, “My presence at the hearing was the presence of a woman who understood.” Records were made showing that women were judges and government officials in northern Mesopotamia. These records prove that even in the eighth century BC, women had an important and respected position. İ.Ö. Legal documents on Elam after about 2000 show that women are the only heirs. A married woman has avoided an inheritance partnership with her husband and intends to leave her inheritance to her daughter. And in another disc it was stipulated that the son and the daughter were equal in inheritance, and the name of the girl was mentioned first. It is mentioned in a few tablets that the husband left everything he owned to his wife; It was said that their children could only inherit if they respected and looked after their mothers.
The patriarchal mindset, which develops after a process in which everything from a woman’s body to all her social relationships is viewed as sacred, as enemies, and demonizes women and makes them the source of evil, is also reflected in the laws that men formulate. A period begins, which is reflected in myths as stories where the mother gods are gradually weakened, killed, their system destroyed, and all their art usurped.
In Sumerian mythology, Enki, Marduk in Babylon, Assyrians in Assyria, Tisop in the Hittites, Baal in the Phoenician, Zeus in the Greeks, Mars in Roman mythology, Juve in Latin as the only deity in the pantheon of gods. These deities, often referred to as storms, sun, and lightning, also express the transition to monotheistic religions. In many mythological stories, these deities symbolize the order in front of them and bring order to the world by killing a goddess. They proclaim themselves as deities establishing order in the face of immorality and chaos created by the laws of the age of the Mother Goddess. In mythological stories, this state is described as the end of chaos by killing a monster, a dragon, or a serpent. The laws that now apply in nature and in human societies become the laws of a warrior, a sovereign deity. Those who do not submit to this will be punished by these gods. With this develops the increasing congruence of the words of law, rule, and law with religion and God. The fact that the name of the Roman god Jove comes from the Latin word ius, which means law, which indicates the ideological foundations of Roman law, which is the source of modern law
In parallel with the development of patriarchal hegemony and ruling ideology, the importance of protecting lineage and the fact that men had sons who would continue their lineage gradually increased; This is particularly reflected in the laws on marriage, divorce, adultery and inheritance. Even today, this position plays a decisive role in all written and unwritten laws. Since there was no ambiguity as to whether the children that women would bear belonged to them, this situation was a fundamental problem for men with the development of a patriarchal mentality. This is reflected in the spirit of all laws, as they see the need to discipline women’s bodies.
Although it is said that the oldest laws were the laws of Hammurabi written on stone tablets in the temple of Marduk, which became the main deity by killing the mother of Tiamat, written laws of earlier eras have also been found. Urkagina reforms (circa 2300 BC) indicate that a woman had two husbands; But this one wife was supposed to count. There is no mention of the punishment for unlawful sexual relations. . According to the laws of Hammurabi, if a woman had had sex with another man, she was also forbidden during the reign of the king, from going to the temple expected of her. According to the law of Eshnunna, a man who married a second wife even though his first wife gave birth to a child was expelled from a home she did not own. In Eshnunna, if a woman gave birth to a child from another man while her husband was at war, she had to take the woman from the man and then return to her home and husband. The Assyrian and Hebrew laws gave the husband the right to kill the woman and her lover. Laws still used as a cover for the murder of women in tribal and belief systems derive from this as well. Giving a woman whose husband died to a man’s brother was revealed through the ideology of the ruling family and became the canon of many nations. Laws regarding inheritance, fornication, and stoning are also practices included in the Biblical, Babylonian, and Hittite eras, but they do not derive their origin from the living moral laws of the peoples.
With regard to the institutionalization of male domination, we witness that there is a process that is taking place on the basis of strengthening the patriarchal system and weakening women. This situation is reflected in the rules and laws of countries or religions. In the 12 Canon Boards, which form the basis of Roman law, the head of the family is the father, and the father of the family has the power of life and death over the women and children. The text of the civil law in the direction of the father as the head of the family in Turkey recently can only be replaced by the struggle of the woman.
Law of Religions for Women
Abraham’s first exodus was a moral outlet against the kings of God. However, it also made important contributions to the institutionalization of patriarchy. In the story of Adam and Eve, which expresses the creation of humans as men and women and their expulsion from heaven, the identification of women as secondary and sinful has been a determining factor in religious practices toward women even today.
Not allowing women to educate and control men is attributed to this wrong attitude. It was stipulated that a woman expiates for this sin by giving birth. There is no text in the Qur’an that states that a woman is created from the ribs of a man. However, the secondary position of the woman was expressed. It is mentioned in some hadiths that women were created from ribs, in the manner of the Torah. On the subject of being expelled from Heaven and being a sinner, he wrote that Satan deceived Adam and Eve, not that the woman was deceived by the serpent or Satan and deceived the man.
The laws on adultery, divorce, inheritance, and marriage in the Torah contain stricter provisions than Christianity and Islam, because they express the institutionalization of male control. The Torah is the source of laws such as the stoning of women and men who commit adultery, the ability of a man to divorce a woman very easily, and the marriage of her husband to her brother upon the death of her husband because the woman is considered property. There is a relatively more positive approach to these issues in Christianity and Islam.
We can give an example of the approach to adultery in the three religions;
Two verses from the Torah expressing an approach to this subject are stated as follows: “After about three months, tell Judah that your bride, Tamar, has committed adultery, and is now pregnant.” “Take it outside and burn it,” said Judas. (Genesis 38:24) “If someone commits fornication with the wife of another, that is, the wife of his neighbour. He and the woman with whom he committed adultery shall be put to death (Leviticus 20:10).
In the Bible there is an example of the need to soften the strict position of Judaism. “The scribes and Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in fornication. So they brought the woman to the earth and said to Jesus: Master, this woman has been caught in fornication. “Moses commanded us in the law to stone these women with stones, so what do you say?” They were saying this to test Jesus; They were looking for a reason to blame him. Jesus bowed
He wrote on the floor with his finger. He said, “He who is without sin in you, let him throw the first stone!” Then he bent down again and began writing on the floor. And when they heard this, they went out one by one, especially the elders, and left Jesus alone, with the woman standing in the middle. “Woman, where are they? “No one, sir,” said the woman. Jesus said, “I am not judging you either. Go, make no mistake from now on!” (John 8)
The punishment of women by stoning is often associated with Islam. Although this punishment is frequently applied in countries governed by Sharia, there is no such verse in the Qur’an. It was mentioned in Islam in the verses of adultery the presence of witnesses and the punishments for those who distort this issue. It was mentioned in Surat Al-Nur that the women who had committed adultery and the men who had committed adultery were beaten with a swimming stick “those who accused the honorable who could not bring four witnesses” of being shot, and their testimony was not accepted. However, the source upon which stoning practices are based is mostly hadiths. In one of these hadiths it came as follows: “God sent His Holiness Muhammad with the true religion and revealed the Book to him, and from those who sent down stoning him! I have the following concern: After a long time, some of them will come out and say: “We do not see the punishment of the Book of God” (they may turn to denial by saying) and they may fall into a mistake by leaving something that God revealed in the Book. In fact, stoning is a right found in the Book of God, and it must be applied to them if they find that adultery, with evidence, pregnancy or confession, is adultery. I say God is in my power, if the people do not say: He added in the book of Omar the Almighty, write his book (in the book of God).
The point that draws attention in these and other hadiths regarding the holiday is that there are some discussions due to the absence of such a verse in the Qur’an.
Although the texts of religions on social justice are included in the scriptures, various sources have been used to make it more detailed. Religious texts that cover Jewish civil law, ceremonial rules, and myths are called the Talmud. The Talmut Book is the primary book taught in the teaching of rabbinic schools. It consists of two parts called Mishna and Gemara. The Mishnah is defined as the Jewish criminal law. The portion containing more profound interpretations of the Mishnah was identified by the rabbis as Gemara.
The third section in the Mishnah, which consists of 63 subsections, is the section “Women”. It consists of 7 subsections. Provisions relating to marriage, divorce, male-female relations, and the nazirlik (accompaniment). Various versions of some of the legends in the Torah are also included in the Talmut. Talmut explains why God created Eve from Adam’s rib in the following words: “I did not create a woman from Adam’s head so that she would not be a little merciful and keep her head high from arrogance. I didn’t create it out of his eyes, so he wouldn’t do much research. I did not take it out of his mouth so that he would not listen in secret and carry words. I didn’t create it from your heart so no
envied. I didn’t make it with my own hands so that it wouldn’t reach the empty stuff. I did not create him from his feet so that he would not go astray in vain. The woman was created from a part of Adam’s body that is always veiled and hidden, to always remain veiled and chaste.”
In the emergence of Christianity, there were some systems that partially mitigated the hostility of patriarchy to women. For this reason, the number of women among the first believers in Jesus is very high. In many regions, the faith of the Mother Goddess was kept alive in the form of the cult of the Virgin Mary, and accordingly some cults and nuns were established. Many attributes of the mother goddess have been attributed to the Virgin Mary. In the “Divine Loreto of the Roman Catholic Church, Mary is called the Holy Mother of God, the Divine Mother of Mercy, the Mother of Good Thought, the Most Revered Virgin, the Mighty Virgin, the Deceased Virgin, and the Most Faithful Virgin. He has been praised as the morning star, the health of sickness, the sanctuary of sinners, the relief of the afflicted, the Queen of Peace, the Tower of David, the ivory tower, and the house of gold. They advise to do so. . In this sense, the monastery was presented as a life option for women outside marriage in the conditions of the emergence of Christianity. Divorce is also prohibited in the Catholic faith. Monogamy is based. He stated that the main goal of marriage and sex is procreation. Three personalities stand out in Christianity.
- Satan’s tempting tool for women
- The husband’s wife who protects the family
- Women are the tool of God’s creativity
Interpretations of these identities were crucial to the approach to women. While blessing and exaltation emerged in the person of the Virgin Mary at the beginning of Christianity, the guilt and sin of Eve, who bore the plague of the first sin, appeared. When Christianity becomes the state religion, we witness a change on the grounds that women are seen as sinners, tempters, and source of evil collaborating with Satan. Saint Augustine’s interpretations were also very effective in seeing women as sinners. Augustine enumerates the conditions that led to the evil of women: “A creature full of evil and jealousy, indecisive and unsteady… (the woman who) is the source of all quarrels, quarrels, and injustices. Particularly in the Middle Ages, the “witch hunts” known as the massacres of healers, midwives and wise women, which were the last remnants of the Mother Goddess doctrine, revealed this situation concretely. Pope Innocent 8 issued a papal bull in 1458 and stated that the Church viewed witchcraft as a new threat. In the witch hunt that took place as the slaughter of a woman, they demonstrated a common attitude not only in the Catholic Church but also in other denominations. Martin Luther, founder of Protestantism, stated “I will burn all these witches” and shared the position on the issue. The Witches Hammer (Malleus Maleficarum), which plays the role of an indictment in explaining how witches are identified, was published in 1486, and many were made
of trials based on this book. Women could easily be arrested for witchcraft, they could be tried, convicted, and then burned without their knowledge or expression. Arrest means death. The most brutal and sadistic practices imaginable were experienced on these women. When a woman who said she was a midwife or therapist confessed to her “crime” by saying she was united with Satan and killing children after torture, she was cremated and executed. Millions of women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in England, France, Germany, Bohemia, Poland, Finland, Italy and from Scotland to Russia were victims of witch hunts. They were killed under torture.
Legal issues in Islam turned into a specialty with the concept of Sharia. Sharia means “the way, the doctrine, the way, the custom, the way that leads people to the river, a source for drinking water”. The Qur’anic verses, which are understood as the sayings and actions of Muhammad (Sunnah/Hadith), the sum total of religious canons shaped by the opinions and interpretations of Muslim scholars, “all the rulings of religion in relation to human actions”, “the rulings of the whole world” and “Islamic law”. means like.” The Qur’an, the source of Sharia that is believed to be the word of God, consists of the words of the Prophet who proclaimed the Qur’an and hadith, and the words of the scholars of jurisprudence who interpret them. People who practice ijtihad try not to deviate from it by limiting themselves to the Qur’an and Sunnah. All kinds of legal and civil issues of society are attempted to be resolved through this mechanism. The two main sources accepted by the jurists are the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Although Icmâ is interpreted differently, it is accepted as the common third source. Hanafi and Shafi’i consider it the fourth source, while the Jaafari Shi’ite school considers it the fourth. The Hanbalis do not accept more than three principles.
Hanafi Law School is based on four guides. These sources, also known as proofs of evil, are as follows:
- Sunnah (in hadith).
- İcmâ (issues on which Islamic scholars agree)
- Comparison (new rulings based on the idea that similar issues should also be found in terms of similarities; for example, deciding that drug use is religiously prohibited and forbidden on the basis of alcohol prohibition, etc.)
The Islamic quality of judgment depends on the fact that it is based on at least one of these sources. They also used evidence such as Islamic law, and the opinions of the Companions (Sahaba Kavli), which enriched the dependant on the resources. One of the most important Sharia scholars in Islam. Infidel Sadiq (d. 765), Abu Hanif (d. 767), Al-Shafi (d. 819), Malik bin. Anis (d. 795) and Ahmed b. The sects were introduced through the organization of schools represented by Hanbal (d. 855).
Although there are some provisions of the Qur’an that bring about changes in the patriarchal structure of society in the Arabian Peninsula, marriage of four women, battering of women, and second-degree status are applied on the basis of Qur’anic verses and hadiths or as rulings of Sharia in societies in which Islam spread. In the provisions relating to women in these verses and hadiths, Hz. The period in which Muhammad lived and the patriarchal system of the society in which he lived is also effective. However, in the interpretations of these verses and hadiths, the sexual interpretations against women are also quite specific. The closure of the door of ijtihad in the Islamic world and the avoidance of interpretation with the adoption of Islamic law led to the intensification of patriarchal approaches to this issue. As stated by our captain, Hz. While mosques were the places where the justice system of society operated during the time of Muhammad, this situation caused debates and social decisions on this issue, but this situation disappeared with the passage of time. On the other hand, Al Qadis and the sheikhs made decisions mostly with interpretations against women and this situation continues.
Today, some efforts are being made against sexual interpretations of the Qur’an and hadith, and there are research and exegetical studies, especially by women. However, as mentioned by those who conducted these studies, interpretations and studies in favor of women in Islamic jurisprudence are not sufficient. In the Middle East, Islamic law prevails like state laws. It would mislead ourselves to believe that with equality provided in constitutions, discrimination against women would be eliminated. For this reason, it is important to organize studies that enable women to interpret Islamic rulings. Fatwas called in the name of radical Islam, especially the Middle East, religious interpretations, and most of the laws that have been passed are not the provisions of Islam. Many reasonable practices ranging from selling women in markets to having them circumcised, going to school, and banning cars are expressed as Islamic and Sharia rulings. Protecting the living moral values of cultural Islam and combating patriarchal religious interpretations requires women to enhance their knowledge and experience in this field.
Women’s Law on Capitalist Modernity
With the development of male domination, the secondary position of women is in the spirit of laws with definitions of human nature in myths, then in religious norms and in modern times. The position of women established by the patriarchal tradition experienced a new institutionalization in the unchanged laws of capitalist modernity. The definition of “man” made in laws often describes men. As a concept, the word “man” is used in most places. The woman who attempted murder in Turkey continues to be “murdered” to receive criminal charges. Rousseau, who wrote The Social Contract of Modern Society, defined women as “a potential source of disorder to be tamed by reason”. He said, “No people spoil from excessive wine, those who are perished are always corrupted by the lack of women’s rule.” On the other hand, Hegel, the philosopher of the nation-state, stays out of the course of history because he cannot externalize the nature of women and transcend the family unit and carry himself into civil society, and then the state. Although history has changed, men create new historical stages, women do household chores, give birth and care, and satisfy men’s sexual and emotional needs in the private sphere. This pushes women out of history” and legitimizes the secondary position of women.
The struggle against these definitions in laws was crucial to the emergence of women’s liberation movements. With the development of capitalism, the subordination of women to state laws or the struggle against laws organized according to the needs of men, although not expressed in concrete terms, formed the foundations of the feminist movement. Women’s opposition to freedom, fraternity, equality, and human rights that do not include women has acquired historical significance. The execution of Olympia de Gouges, who said
It is that “if a woman has the right to go to the guillotine, she also has the right to rise to the podium” in order to have the right to be elected, to be elected and to be educated, also revealed the attitude of modernity and the nation-state towards women’s rights.
There was intense struggle against women being confined to the home, and procreation, i.e. in the private sphere, outside the public sphere by nature. The main demands of these struggles were recognition of politics, the right to read for women, divorce, inheritance, child custody, access to rights such as abortion, harassment, rape, and violence against women. The women who actively participated in the national liberation struggles and socialist revolutions had to continue their struggle when the revolutions succeeded because they could not obtain their rights. Some rights were withdrawn early, with class, state, or men’s interests in mind. Although agreements such as the CEDAW (Prevention of All Forms of Discrimination against Women) and the Beijing Protocol have been signed in order to prevent discriminatory attitudes towards women on the international stage, they clearly mean little. Indeed, it was revealed that the United Nations made the struggle of women’s movements an instrument of neoliberal policies, not to mention the protection of women’s rights in many projects. United Nations initiatives, especially in Africa, the Middle East and Asian countries, in the name of assistance or in the name of protecting women and children, have increased women’s poverty and exposure to more violence. Military forces sent to war zones under the name of protecting UN institutions have engaged in many practices such as rape, prostitution and child trafficking in these countries. In this regard, women must not leave their pursuit of justice in the international arena to the mercy of institutions such as the United Nations.
Living Ethics of Society
Although it is argued that the law should interfere due to insufficient morality, this is not true. The first moral rules, which were seen as the source of the working of nature and the survival of society before the rules of law, were valid for thousands of years with different names and forms. Natural disasters, every evil faced by society or man is attributed to the violation of these principles. These are the principles that philosophers and moral prophets try to protect from the laws of God or the kings of God, starting with the totems determined by women become the laws and rules of the doctrine of the mother goddess, and then the development of male domination and the state. With the rule of religions, these moral principles were exemplified by sects, beliefs, and doctrines that were considered deviant.
In the Sumerians, these sacred laws are expressed under the Mead, which includes the rituals, arts, and rules of the goddess Inanna. meaning to me. The regulations, rules, knowledge, and arts that make the world and human society work well. Besides many crafts and rituals, I also include moral principles. Honesty, the art of honesty, the art of slander, the art of grandiose speech, heroism, the art of the mighty, the art of hypocrisy, the art of righteousness, cheating, the art of well-being, the ear of understanding, the power of attention, the sacred purification ritual, fear, amazement, it translates to despair, the united family, Education, the outbreak of strife, the joy of victory, advice, calming the heart, judgment, and decision-making. The traits that include good and evil express the moral problems that are beginning to arise in society.
These laws are called Maat in Egypt. The pharaohs ruled their countries according to the principles set by this goddess, and thus they believed that a “world order” would be established. According to the belief, the chaos that arose when the world was created at the beginning of time was destroyed by the rules of time. For this reason, it is believed that if the pharaohs broke these rules, then chaos would return and destroy Egypt and the world.
In India, they are called dharma, which means “social order based on virtuous behaviour”. Dharma in Buddhism; The laws of cosmic nature, which guarantee the order of the universe and spiritual development, have many different meanings such as supreme order, true nature, truth, duty, righteousness, virtue, morality, wisdom, belief, and the path to higher truths. Dharma is seen as guiding the perception of an individual’s inherent nature through a social system.
Tao, which means “path”, which is believed to be the main principle of the universe in China, has the same meaning, and te is often translated as virtue and strength. tau. Defines the appropriate ratio between feminine and masculine, or all opposites, expressed in yang and ying. Anything that changes this normal range is considered bad. It is believed that the right to live will be achieved by carefully observing the Tao. There are some basic requirements to follow Tao. Simple lifestyle, integration with nature, detachment from selfishness, and mystical integration with the ultimate principle. These preconditions cultivate the three basic characteristics of personality. Compassion, simplicity and humility.
It is these laws that are expressed as virtues and moral values in the philosophies of the philosophers Ethics, as the rules and prohibitions of God in religions, in the Gatas of Zoroaster. They are laws that advise against arrogance, not lying, not stealing, or infringing on anyone’s rights. They advise limiting impulses, the essential quality that develops society and separating humans from animals, and controlling their hands, waist and tongue. They want people to think well, tell the truth, and make them feel nice. They invite people to listen to the voice of their conscience. They all talk about the scales on which good and evil will be weighed. We see that the scales by which sins and good deeds are weighed in Egyptian, Indian, and Zoroastrian beliefs find a place in religions as well. In Zoroastrianism, the “yellow gold scale” is mentioned, and in this scale the weight of sins and good deeds are measured against each other. On this scale, sins are placed on one pan and good deeds on one pan and the scale is checked. It benefits no one, be he a just man or a sinner, male or female, noble or common, poor, rich.
Manidi put forward principles that represent the living morals of society. According to Mani, those who have access to the mystery of God are the “elites” or “authorities”. Listeners are normal. In Manichaeism, women are also considered “elite”. Not seeing a woman with a bad eye and not seeing her as a sexual object is a fundamental principle of life that was developed against reducing women to the level of a sexual commodity. It is the most striking statement that a man who cannot establish a correct and friendly relationship with a woman cannot reconcile with his human essence, gain willpower and become free.
In the Middle East, the movements of Babak, Hurrem, Mazdik, Sheikh Badertain and many female scholars and mystics in the Sufi tradition fought for principles based on protecting the morals of society from power. In Europe, women who were accused of heretics, Gnosticism, and witches accused of sectarian heresy within Christianity, as well as peasant movements fought in this moral conflict. In these movements and beliefs against the dominant religion, the sovereign state dominates, respects women’s rights and increases their social standing.
Why the social justice system for women?
The answer to the question of why societies viewed justice as women before the formation of a male-dominated class state must be sought. It was said that the solution of problems between people and justice is provided by the powers of states, religions, gods and kings. However, there is abundant data from archeology and anthropology showing that a more just system existed long before the advent of states, laws, kings, religions, and deities. millennia-old societies with law and not the state; They lived on moral grounds and expressed them with feminine concepts, deities. It is known that the first moral principles were taboos based on the gender that women developed and the protection of children. These taboos laid the foundations of morality as sanctities that sustain society. Society teaches these rules to their children through rituals, blessings and punishments, and the entire society considers itself responsible for their protection. Those who adhere to these rules are considered members of society, while those who violate them are subject to severe penalties. Society understands the vital nature of these principles that enable coexistence. Tales, epics, legends, dandelions, sayings, prayers, and proverbs expressed as oral traditions played a role as schools in which society taught its members good, evil, and morals. In these societies, celebrations were held to ensure the transition from childhood to adolescence and readiness to participate in society. With these ceremonies called adulthood, societies taught their children to be able to decide, to be brave and to be just. In the period before the development of male domination, the social order in which the laws of nature and women predominate in the rituals, ceremonies and ceremonies of women’s societies was formed on the basis of these practices.
Since the provision of justice and the protection of morals was seen as the responsibility of the whole society before the society of the state, the trial was conducted by the society as well. In ancient tribal groupings, within the jurisdiction of some religious groups, this system of social justice is still in effect. However, sometimes more unfair, biased, or unacceptable outcomes can emerge from state practice, with implications for gender, class, and family discrimination in the principles underlying this justice system in solving social problems. For this reason, we should not forget that there are traditions and customs that need to be changed, democratized and reinterpreted. In Middle Eastern societies, referring the problem to the state or the courts expresses the point at which human relations have been most damaged. The term “court” is used for this as the end point of relationships between two people. Although not yet corrupted by patriarchal typology and influences, the penalties imposed in trials based on a community’s culture and beliefs are practices in the form of expulsion, exile or social isolation. Moreover, this is generally seen as the most severe punishment. Today, the judicial system is in closed courtrooms, in which experts in the field participate, based on legislation that neither the offender nor the accused understand; He removed the possibilities of trial and trial for society. Providing the distinction between right and wrong, good and bad and not fair, but the rules based on keeping the job under the hood are more specific. That is why whoever steals bread because he is hungry is imprisoned for years, and whoever steals millions of dollars is rewarded with innocence in the courts.
The perception of morality as the legal rules of religion or state, rather than society, was a critical factor in the erosion of morality. The main issue people complain about today is this moral crisis. The establishment of the legal and justice system, which is believed to protect morality, deepens this crisis. Therefore, in those courts, criminals are acquitted without guilt, and people who claim their rights can be considered guilty. The extent of the ability of lawyers far from the place and time of the crime incident, and the traditions of
and the culture of the society in which the crime was committed, to solve problems and provide justice in an increasingly contested and insecure situation. As defined by many philosophers, prisons, sanatoriums, and schools play a role as places where community education takes place in modern society. However, in a period when the social structure was not as diverse and different as it is today, societies lived with a variety of laws and systems of justice at the center of their culture and beliefs.
We also rely on the need for a social justice system for women in this historical background. One of the main pillars upon which the new social structure must be based on the model of women’s liberation and eco-democratic society is the social justice system for women. In building this new society, we can say that the moral and political society also needs the politics of solution, democratic politics, human rights, and the rights of women and children. For justice, goodness, morals and beauty to flourish, a woman’s justice system is needed for a fundamental solution to social problems. The simplest way to get rid of the current system that leads to corruption and cancer is to organize the women’s justice system and put it into working order. In a world where injustice against women, oppression and poverty live in society, even the oppressed and the oppressed in their most horrific ways, the rule of justice is not possible.
The legal system prevailing today is the punitive power of the state. It is a male-dominated system devoid of justice and morals, and bound by rules and laws. Most important of all, it is the legal system that leads society to deepen violence against women, which does not respond to its problems by managing society with law, and gradually imposes fragmentation, injustice, denial and inequality.
By nature, a woman has the characteristic that she is more interested in social relations and is more responsible in life than a man. It needs women’s justice and the belief that society can be justly governed in order to revive and sustain society. In this case, the woman must first struggle seriously against this corrupt and tyrannical system by relying on her own justice, and instead she must be able to develop a lifestyle based on the interests, rights and justice of society.
If it is necessary to reduce the system of social justice for women into reality, women should be given their rights in all areas of life. The dominant patriarchal system did not recognize women’s rights not only in the legal sphere, but also in the economic, social, political and cultural spheres. The social justice system for women must develop a system that recognizes and legalizes their economic, social, political and cultural rights in all segments of society, especially women. It is indispensable to build a justice system for women in which justice is respected and society freely decides its own destiny
The justice system based on women is inseparable from politics
The justice system for women also finds meaning with efficacy in democratic politics. The sovereign patriarchal system did not recognize the right of women to engage in politics in life, and it was seen as a phenomenon that belonged to men, carried out outside society and women, and was attributed to men. The dominant man was not fair in this respect, and the mentality of “society cannot do politics, what women understands of politics” has stayed away from the politics of society and women.
Politics is an art that shapes society, meets the vital needs of society, and develops a solution to social problems with society. The goddess of the woman-mother is the first to create this art. The Neolithic social process that takes place under the responsibility of the mother-woman is a process in which a truly democratic style of politics is revealed. The communal lifestyle – egalitarian, just and collectivist – appears as a political style as a result of the struggle waged by women and society is organized in this way. Division developed in society. Politics exists in society primarily to ensure and protect women’s justice. A respectful approach to differences in society, equality and justice based on differences is a fundamental principle of democratic politics. The social justice system for women cannot be developed through justice without an unfair policy or policy.
Just as the hard work of the APO for years in the struggle for women’s liberation has given women a sense of will, freedom and justice, it has also given women the necessary role in politics. A politics that does not include the will and mind of women does not guarantee justice, freedom and the will of society. The politicization of women means solving a woman’s most pressing problem related to solving the problems of society. Finding solutions to problems such as violence, rape, honor killings against women, child marriage, issues such as population and the family, and problems such as economic, social, political and educational issues will only enhance women’s participation in democratic politics. Tirza’s focus on problems is a male-dominated system and his understanding of politics is always irrational and dogmatic and only deepens the problems. But the feminine style in democratic politics must be one that promotes moral and aesthetic understanding and is practiced accordingly. A just, equal and free society is possible only through the realization of women’s right to democratic politics.
The struggle that the leader APO has waged for years for today’s free women’s movement has reached a level where it has reached the necessary tracks and developed a new system as an alternative to sexual politics, such as the system of co-presidency. Today, in the cities of Kurdistan and Turkey, equal and free representation of women in politics is practiced in municipalities and parties again in social institutions in a co-presidential manner. The co-presidency system is a system in which women in the field of democratic politics depend on their will, in the mechanisms of governance and decision-making, in which men equally advocate for collective and common understanding, and have a say and decision. With this system, women’s justice will also have its stamp on democratic politics, and the oppressive and sexist approach of the five-thousand-year-old system of male domination in politics will be destroyed. The co-presidency system is also one of the principles of the women’s social justice system. This is why the Leader APO, with the co-presidency system developed to give women the opportunity to stand up for justice in the political arena, gave them a role and a mission.
It is necessary to regulate the economic aspect of the women’s justice system.
The male-dominated system in the economic sphere did not treat women fairly and excluded them from this sphere. The exclusion of the real women owners of the economy is a genocidal policy against women. Because of the discrimination that women face in the toughest jobs in terms of working and living conditions, minimum wages are the norm. Employing mostly females in the service and entertainment sectors are the areas where they end up physically and mentally. Protecting women’s right to life and work is also an issue that needs to be addressed in the justice system.
Another issue is the stigmatization of women in violence, enforced prostitution, and workplace harassment due to poverty, and with “harassment” entering the literature, there are areas that should be seriously addressed in our judicial system. The lack of financial and housing opportunities for women in many cases of cohabitation prevents them from taking custody of children. Men use the power of money in the same justice system as women. The best lawyers take bribes and extortion to deny women opportunities to defend themselves.
Regardless of the circumstances in which women find themselves, the issues that affect them require social support, physical and mental reparations, or the responsibility of women’s organizations and institutions that eliminate economic injustice. there.
Women’s justice is needed in the (ecological) environment
A social justice system for women requires ecological awareness and ecological living. The feminine justice system also expresses a return to nature based on human values. In particular, the re-emergence of women’s nature, society, nature and the relationship between man and man requires a change in our mental orientation, as well as in our environment. Given the many potential risks such as war, violence, natural disasters and population growth, which pose a threat to the future of humanity, preventing this is a fundamental task of the justice system of women, which must be pursued philosophically, ideologically, culturally, environmentally and in science all social relations can be re-established. To understand that man is a part of nature, it is enough to look at all the creatures in nature, plants and animals. Women in particular, you will definitely find a piece in them. If understood from a biological perspective, the nature of women is closer to nature. Her peculiarity in childbirth, her reflection on oneself – the flow of her life reveals the woman’s close relationship with nature. In nature the female element is more. The saying of the mother of the earth comes from nature in this way and the woman becomes more equal to the earth.
The first human societies that we call the natural society, always living in harmony with nature, knew how to be friendly with nature. Their relationship to soil, plants and animals is like that of a parent to a child, like that of friends. Living with, feeling and respecting nature becomes a matter of conscience and morals. A dialectical
connection between the parts in nature and the universe is possible from the perspective of the formation of the universe, especially in women. But the tyrannical, uncontrollable rage of the dominant male force that has destroyed this natural and ecological balance and dragged disaster into chaos wherever the natural universe goes, is leading to its extinction.
Finding the root of the ecological crisis at the beginning of civilization is how the deepest way to deal with the social crisis is the most realistic way. With oppression and trial applied to women, nature and society have also been oppressed by women. The system, layer by layer, destroys what it has done to humanity in nature. We have destroyed the most necessary system with the wrath of the male-dominated system that has destroyed the entire universe with the development of hormone-producing products, deforestation, the eternal extinction of animal species, pollution of water, soil and air, and sending space with millions of satellite devices. They have also made a huge difference between society and the nature they encounter
Today, the ecological problem is as necessary as the problem of women’s freedom.
. Because as much as there is the issue of social justice for women, there is also the issue of ecological. As much as a woman’s need for freedom, her need for ecological freedom is also part of the talk. In this case, if the problem is solved at its root, it will create a justice system focused on women. This ecologically conscious society, its organization and construction is also one of the basic activities of the women’s justice system.
The transformation of ecological consciousness into such a mindset should not be limited to a theoretical sense. What is required is to give it language, movement, conscience, morals and nature. To build a healthy society, ecological activity must reach its normal, i.e. health. Therefore, from animal rights to forest protection, from the struggle against industrialization to the re-creation of nature, this must be a fundamental task and become an integral part of social activity. A just, ethical and conscientious approach to ecology will promote the reintegration of society with nature and its learning to live in harmony. As Leader APO says, “the sensitivities of those without a biosensory impairment” must also be understood as a woman’s justice system as responsible for ecological life as it is for social life. Consideration of justice and communication should be the main principle in the head with the smallest animal in nature.
Relationships between a man and a woman must be based on the principles of life (equality)a free partner
One of the basic agendas of the women’s liberation movement’s social justice system will also consist of the relationships between women and men and the problems that revolve around these relationships. Our guide concludes: “Unless the relationship between a man and a woman is understood, a social problem cannot be adequately understood or solved. He said that the roots of social problems are diversity,” noting that the relationship between women and men is not limited to individual relationships and individual relationships. The relationship between man and woman, from mythology to religion, from civil law to justice, was set during the most important period in its history. In traditional family and austere relationships, sexual gratification is revived by the everyday capitalism of love, where every female-male relationship takes on almost hype. In opposition to these deities, either physically or spiritually, women may live in the most dangerous of ways. The institution of the family, left by capitalism as a private domain of male justice, has become one in which women and children are subjected to daily violence, harassment and rape. Traditional institutions also treat women as a manifestation of property and honor, as well as the power to sell and kill them.
The definition of issues such as honour, unemployment, adultery, harassment, rape, and gender relations in the legal system has been shaped entirely by the patriarchal outlook for thousands of years. The law in force is a system that does not recognize a woman’s right to live outside the absolute property of her father and husband. Discrimination on the basis of sex is most visible in the laws in these matters. Divisions unfavorable to women in law are also eliminated through social oppression and gender discrimination in the judicial system.
In the issues on the agenda in the relationship between a man and a woman, the guarantee of reconciliation in the interest of the man is the situation that always arises. Gradually in such cases the problem is solved by convincing the woman of the status of a slave. Women often pay a heavy price for such incidents. Based on the demands and statements of women, the patriarchy around women must be observed and problems addressed. Women cannot get justice if there are no opportunities for women to be able to make their choices freely under pressure.
Therefore, the justice system based on the freedom of women must first determine the criteria that define the rules for free coexistence in the relationship between women and men. Decisions should not be made by modeling female-male relationships in traditional society or capitalist modernity, with standards being met. An awareness of the fact that capitalist modernity and patriarchy are the biggest bankruptcies in this area of life must be dealt with, and the extent to which society is educated on these issues must create opportunities for women to gain preferences and opportunities for protection and education. A life of free coexistence should not stop as a utopia and a relationship that will not happen. The basic relational form of socialist life, the democratic nation will be based on a life of free coexistence.
In building a democratic nation, the legal system of women is its system of free life
An essential part of building democratic nationalism through our movement is how to achieve the institution of our social justice system. The experiences in social life that have emerged in the areas in which we work highlight the need to deepen our discussions on this topic. This is because the beginning of practices that seriously undermine the success of social systems comes from the ability to provide justice. Our social justice system also requires the development of an institution where law is not based on morality.
As leaders in building a democratic nationalism, our leadership has set the task of forming a prototype for a democratic society for the PKK and the Free Kurdistan Women’s Party. Therefore, the leading parties must represent the social justice system within their own justice system. In light of this, the PKK, with its forty years of organizational experience, has developed an ethical system that transcends program, regulations and law, and this system has been accepted as the norm in society. There is a great deal of respect and commitment to the justice of the PKK, both in the Kurdish community and in everyone who knows the PKK closely. Our institutions or cadres have been criticized for representing these values, although they have been criticized for not taking an adequate approach to these principles, it has been proven that they cannot represent the PKK. At the same time, ideological parties and their cadres are obliged to represent the morals of the societies they oppose. Forty years of struggle have shown that living in the mind of a community living together, in its time and place, and focusing on shortcomings or crimes committed by individuals, becomes a way to solve problems and revive moral principles in society. Which leads to better results. In these so-called platforms and contexts, psychological and social analyzes of individuals are evaluated, from the culture in which they live to the work that takes shape, and decisions are made about him/her. When the situation that was the subject of women’s issues also relates to the real mechanisms that come into play and the effects of a sexist society on the truth are eliminated. The mechanism that will keep track of the decision made and the change that the individual makes about himself is also the community that conducted the experiment itself. Through education, with support, sometimes vigilance, sometimes with guidance, as our leader stated at the Third Congress of the PKK, “No personal, temporary, historical destiny” of society is achieved.
The ultimate goal of our justice system that we promote in the social sphere is also to establish a level in which morality is based, and not according to legal rules and regulations. Because the party, tribe, or religious group has common values, it will not cause much difficulty in building a moral order within itself. Moral traditions are preserved to some extent in the nature of every society, every belief group and even every organization, however contradictory they may be. Only in the social spheres when it is believed that the great cities of our time have the emergence of different values in the development of a system based solely on morality creates tensions.
The devastation caused by the attacks of capitalist modernity to eradicate morality must also be added to these tensions. Sharing moral values, without this awareness, would not be realistic to expect a solution to social problems based solely on specific moral principles. But this is not a moral situation, nor does it lead to the failure of the Spartan justice system. This is also one of the implications of the male-dominated mindset. No further consideration of the legal system of states is crucial to this approach. In any case, women must be able to play an active role in building a moral system as the first and last victims of the state’s legal system.
Therefore, one of the principles of the social justice system is for women to fight the male-dominated mentality in the field of gender law and be able to apply justice in law. State law is by its nature a symbol of power and authority, a system that is far from justice, morality and democracy. Accordingly, the law of women is a system based on morality and justice, a system that makes this life possible, and which is necessary to be able to develop within the framework of social justice. Women’s law represents a complete system historically, philosophically, ideologically and universally. Advocate for community rights, especially women’s rights, and works to shed light on society in these areas. The collapse of our male-dominated system today requires that justice, morality, equality, democracy and sociality be at the core of the rule of law. The fact that the current legal system was built with a male-dominated mentality has denied women’s status in law. A woman who has no place in law, in justice, or in any other sphere of life can have an opinion. In the harsh cases of the rule of law system such as the persecution, rape, torture and murder of women, sexist attitudes are exposed to an ever-present reality in our faces.
Today, one of the main reasons for the increase in incidents of violence against women in society is undoubtedly the discriminatory approach of the sexual legal system towards the state-controlled mentality. Initially, sexual harassment is considered normal in legal norms. A woman who has always been condemned to injustice, oppression and slavery for more than five thousand years is known in society as a “traitor” and a “sinner.” There is almost no woman in the world who has not been a victim of violence. Direct violence against women is legal in society and rape is the most common.
Rape, which has become a cultural issue, is no longer seen as an event today in state law, as an out-of-order situation. For example, in the case of rape, the perpetrator should be prosecuted, rather than the victim being a rape victim and entering into a criminal case in court or in the community. Crime is always committed against women. With this mindset and judgment, what needs to be done is undoubtedly the exploitation and healing of the female body. Honor killings, prevalent in Kurdistan, and especially in many parts of the Middle East, are also legalized by state law in order to protect the honor of men, murder, rape, and violence against women. It is ironic that the gender-based legal system of the state and government enacting these decisions is a mentality far removed from justice and democracy. In this case, how unfair it is to deal with women in criminal law, the victims are always women.
Therefore, there is a need for women’s rights to emerge and protect women victimized in society and the law. One of the basic principles of institutionalizing the social justice system is the principle of justice, which is fundamentally based on the will of society and women. Whatever the institution, an organization that is not based on the will of the people may end up escaping from tyranny and bureaucracy and becoming an authoritarian system of state law. Thus, the need for institutionalization in building a political and moral community is undoubtedly a response to individual and societal needs in every subject. The justice system for women can range from the indigenous to the organized system in all cities and regions.
Women’s law is primarily responsible for regulating their justice system and imposing a sense of justice in society. Emphasis should be placed on psychological educational activities and an environment in which women have a say in every field. Women’s social justice units and committees may be established in villages, towns, neighborhoods and councils. This unit can be organized independently, for example by a retailer, in the form of an appeal body. Problems relating to women in these appellate bodies can be addressed – we can also call them a platform – and addressed.
Thus, the problems of society and women themselves do not have to be stopped and resolved in the sex courts of the state, in the regions, on the platforms of free peoples or the platforms of appeals of free women. In this way, the problems of society and women themselves cannot be resolved sovereignly in state courts of a sexual nature, in indigenous peoples, in free public programs or in women’s appeal platforms.
In all forms of violence against women in relation to justice, without a free platform under the umbrella of men, the approach must be based on the idea of protecting justice, equality and solution. It should be developed in a way that goes beyond the logic of punishing the crime, and solves problems more with an ethical sense. The women’s justice system is primarily responsible for issues that concern women. As the male-dominated gender law approach to women’s issues does not go beyond the scope of crime, it appears that lawsuits against women require consideration of the women’s justice system.
It is also the duty of this system to provide employment opportunities for the elderly, young or affected women in society, including in areas such as academia, training and workshops, women’s research centers, and women’s shelters. They also have good spiritual, social and psychological improvement. These spaces, insofar as they will protect women physically, psychologically and spiritually, will create free life systems with job opportunities and jobs available to women in these places and will bring out their natural strength as well as will have the ability to be very flexible and active.